Half a Petabyte in 4U

OK, so first up, I flat up lied; it’s only 480TB. But that’s how storage marketing goes, right?

I just caught mention of Dell’s MD3060e Dense Enclosure, an insane 4U storage enclosure that accommodates 60x 3.5″ hard drives. (Five trays of 12 disks each.)

Screen Shot 2015-03-16 at 11.39.02 PM

Here’s one on eBay, with 60x 4TB disks for a mere $38,999.

I also learned in the past week about shingled magnetic recording, a new technology for spinning magnetic disks that allows much greater density, at the cost of some stranger semantics on how data is written. It’s how Seagate already has an 8TB drive on the market, at an oddly low price.

I’ve also been playing around with ZFS (on Linux) lately. I’m building a file server with 3x 6TB drives (RAIDz1, akin to RAID 5), and 2x 512GB SSDs for cache/ZIL. I have a lot of kinks to work out still, but the idea is that ‘popular’ content will get auto-cached on the SSDs, backed by magnetic storage. A modest bit of SSD space is set aside for ZIL, where writes forcing a sync can be written to SSD and then later written to spinning disks. I suspect that the “SSD as cache in front of slower magnetic storage” paradigm will grow in popularity until SSDs become cheap enough that magnetic storage is entirely obsolete. Things like shingled drives would seem to make that even more important.

I feel like this would be a really exciting combination to play around with, if only I had the money and the need for almost a half-petabyte of storage.

‘coding’ and ‘hacker’ make the State of the Union

Twitter user @benmschmidt tweeted last night a list of words that have never appeared in a State of the Union address before:

Screen Shot 2015-01-21 at 11.19.04 AM

It’s case-sensitive, so things like “internet” (previously spelled as a proper noun in official transcripts) and “Understand” (surely used before, but maybe not at the start of a sentence) are probably erroneous. (And it’s also been suggested that “healthcare” has always been used as two words.)

But it’s exciting to see that the words “coding” and “hacker” make an appearance in a State of the Union address. (Plus reference to eBay, Tesla, and Instagram. I’m hoping “CVS” was not a reference to the version control system.)

The appearance of “lesbian”, “bisexual”, and “transgender” in the address also seems like a sign of progress.

Mac Battery Status

The Mac can self-report some battery information, and Coconut Battery is pretty slick, too. But for someone handy with the command line, it turns out there’s a wealth of information about your battery and charger status.

Matthew.Wagner ~ $ system_profiler SPPowerDataType
Power:

    Battery Information:

      Model Information:
          Serial Number: D864196T1QQFT5YAS
          Manufacturer: SMP
          Device Name: bq20z451
          Pack Lot Code: 0
          PCB Lot Code: 0
          Firmware Version: 702
          Hardware Revision: 000a
          Cell Revision: 379
      Charge Information:
          Charge Remaining (mAh): 6106
          Fully Charged: No
          Charging: Yes
          Full Charge Capacity (mAh): 6271
      Health Information:
          Cycle Count: 112
          Condition: Normal
      Battery Installed: Yes
      Amperage (mA): 1074
      Voltage (mV): 12860

    System Power Settings:

      AC Power:
          System Sleep Timer (Minutes): 0
          Disk Sleep Timer (Minutes): 10
          Display Sleep Timer (Minutes): 62
          Wake on AC Change: No
          Wake on Clamshell Open: Yes
          Wake on LAN: Yes
          AutoPowerOff Delay: 14400
          AutoPowerOff Enabled: 1
          Current Power Source: Yes
          DarkWakeBackgroundTasks: 1
          Display Sleep Uses Dim: Yes
          PrioritizeNetworkReachabilityOverSleep: 0
          Standby Delay: 10800
          Standby Enabled: 1
      Battery Power:
          System Sleep Timer (Minutes): 1
          Disk Sleep Timer (Minutes): 10
          Display Sleep Timer (Minutes): 2
          Wake on AC Change: No
          Wake on Clamshell Open: Yes
          AutoPowerOff Delay: 14400
          AutoPowerOff Enabled: 1
          DarkWakeBackgroundTasks: 0
          Display Sleep Uses Dim: Yes
          Reduce Brightness: Yes
          Standby Delay: 10800
          Standby Enabled: 1

    Hardware Configuration:

      UPS Installed: No

    AC Charger Information:

      Connected: Yes
      ID: 0x0aa1
      Wattage (W): 85
      Family: 0x0085
      Serial Number: 0x00159fe3
      Charging: Yes

North Korea’s Internet Presence

The Boston Globe reports that North Korea is entirely offline.

Two quotes struck me. The first:

The country officially has 1,024 Internet protocol addresses, although the actual number may be somewhat higher. By comparison, the United States has billions of addresses.

That’s… Quite few. A lot of tiny hosting companies have more substantial netblocks.

CloudFlare, an Internet company based in San Francisco, confirmed Monday that North Korea’s Internet access was “toast.” A large number of connections had been withdrawn, “showing that the North Korean network has gone away,” Matthew Prince, CloudFlare’s founder, wrote in an email.

“Withdrawn” was interesting terminology to me, making me think that their routers had withdrawn their routes from the Internet / stopped advertising them. That could be caused by an attack, but the prefixes disappearing from the global routing table is slightly more extreme than their routers simply failing to pass traffic. So I wondered: what network(s) does North Korea have, and what happened to them? Let’s find out!

North Korea’s Address Space

This is a great page, listing the known networks assigned to North Korea. (It also contains an interesting scan of their IP space, albeit from a while ago.) According to that site, there are three netblocks:

  • 175.45.176.0/22 (the block of 1024 IPs the article mentions), owned by North Korea
  • 210.52.109.0/24 from China Unicom (not China Unicorn as my eyes read every time)
  • 77.94.35.0/24 from a satellite provider

The first is the official one that they control, and the other two are delegated from other carriers’ IP space.

175.45.176.0/22 is “toast”

To borrow the term from the CloudFlare quote, their main netblock is “toast.” Taking a look at various looking glasses, the network doesn’t exist in the global routing table:

  • Cogent’s looking glass: “% Network not in table”
  • HE: “None of the BGP4 routes match the display condition”
  • nLayer GTT “No route found.”

The other two networks are still in the routing table, but that’s unsurprising since they’re managed by other ISPs. North Korea’s main netblock has disappeared from the Internet routing tables entirely.

.kp is offline

The .kp TLD has two nameservers, and they’re both in the vanished 175.45.176.0/22 block:

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;kp.                IN  NS

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
kp.         172800  IN  NS  ns2.kptc.kp.
kp.         172800  IN  NS  ns1.kptc.kp.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns1.kptc.kp.        172800  IN  A   175.45.176.15
ns2.kptc.kp.        172800  IN  A   175.45.176.16

(As an aside, I had a hard time hosting my own DNS for a .com domain because I was supposed to have two nameservers on separate /24s. Here is a TLD that doesn’t meet that requirement.)

So, other than anything already cached, nothing in .kp can possibly resolve right now.

North Korean websites

As an aside, here is a list of every .kp domain I can find in existence:

  • airkoryo.com.kp (The website of state airline, Air Koryo)
  • friend.com.kp (The website of the Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries)
  • kcna.kp (The website of the Korean Central News Agency)
  • knic.com.kp
  • koredufund.org.kp
  • korelcfund.org.kp
  • korfilm.com.kp (The website of the Pyongyang Film Festival)
  • ksf.com.kp
  • naenara.com.kp (The official North Korean governmental portal, Naenara)
  • rodong.rep.kp (The website of the Rodong Sinmun newspaper)
  • vok.rep.kp (The website of shortwave station Voice of Korea)

Descriptions, where present, come from the .kp Wikipedia page. My list comes from Wikipedia and a private crawler. (They’re not linked because none of them could resolve right now.)

This site has another list.